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Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr zbraň

Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr zbraň


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Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr zbraň

Bishop, alebo Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr zbraň, bol samohybný kanón vyrobený v reakcii na naliehavú požiadavku velenia Blízkeho východu.

Žiadosť bola vydaná v júni 1941 v reakcii na rýchlo sa pohybujúcu povahu púštnych vojen. Objednávka bola postúpená spoločnosti Birmingham Railway Carriage, jednej zo spoločností, ktoré postavili Valentína. Zobrali podvozok Valentine II, odstránili vežu a nahradili ho nadstavbou s otvoreným sklom. To nieslo 25-librovú zbraň, ako aj zbraň Bren na otvorenom protileteckom držiaku. Tam bolo miesto pre 32 nábojov 25pdr munície.

Prototyp biskupa bol pripravený na skúšky v auguste 1941 a v novembri 1941 bola zadaná objednávka na 100. Dodávky sa začali začiatkom roku 1942. V júli 1942 bolo objednaných ďalších 50 kusov a posledný bol dodaný v januári 1943.

Biskup trpel mnohými problémami. Mal vysokú siluetu a zbraň mala obmedzený posuv (4 stupne na každú stranu) a výšku (na 15 stupňov), čo obmedzovalo dosah zbrane. Napriek tomu bol použitý v bojoch v Západnej púšti, Tunisku a na Sicílii.

Jeden pluk biskupov bol počas druhej bitky pri Alameine zaradený k 23. obrnenej brigáde vybavenej Valentínom, aby nahradil nedostatok blízkeho Valentína.

Biskup bol vyradený z prevádzky po príchode amerického M7 Priest so 105 mm kanónom a potom kanadského Sextona, ktorý niesol 25pdr v lepšom držiaku. Biskup bol odsunutý na výcvikové povinnosti.


Databáza druhej svetovej vojny


ww2dbase Biskup bol prvým britským úsilím o samohybné delo a bol užitočný pri predvádzaní potenciálu typu a čomu sa v budúcich projektoch vyvarovať. V priebehu celého roku 1941 mali britské a spoločenské divízie v Západnej púšti málo síl na boj proti dobre obrneným nemeckým stredným tankom, okrem takmer zbytočnej protitankovej pušky Boyes a dvojpalcového (40 mm) protitankového dela divízneho protitankového tanku. Pluky. Napriek tomu, že tieto boli primerane účinné proti ľahko obrneným talianskym tankom, neboli úplne dostatočné na to, aby sa zmocnili silnejšie obrnených nemeckých tankov (PzKfw III a IV) používaných v tankových plukoch Rommel & Afrika Korps (DAK). Jediným skutočne účinným spôsobom boja proti Panzers bolo nasadenie 25-poľových batérií Kráľovského delostrelectva v protitankovej úlohe. Napriek tomu, že boli celkom schopné vyradiť nemecké tanky, bohužiaľ im chýbala mobilita a ochrana potrebná pre boj na otvorených priestranstvách severoafrického terénu a chýbalo im vhodné kolo AT. Na rozdiel od Nemcov, ktorí vyvíjali samohybné delá od roku 1938, Briti nepočítali s použitím týchto vozidiel odvtedy, čo britské kráľovské delostrelectvo v roku 1925 odmietlo brezové delo. V dôsledku toho, keď britská armáda na Blízkom východe zažila účinky nemeckého samohybného delostrelectva netrvalo dlho a požadovali podobnú zbraň. Naliehavo bolo potrebné urýchlené riešenie.

ww2dbase Projektové práce vykonala spoločnosť Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company, ktorej prvým návrhom bolo osadenie 25 mm protitankového dela do valentínskeho tanku. Toto sa ukázalo ako neúspešné a potom bolo navrhnuté, že by malo byť možné namontovať na podvozok tanku húfnicu 25-Pdr Mk II, ak by bola veža odstránená a nahradená pevne namontovanou, vysokou, doskovou pancierovou skriňou. S využitím valníka Valentine II, poháňaného naftovým motorom AEC s výkonom 131 k, sa podvozok začal vyrábať v továrni Vickers Ltd v Elswicku začiatkom roku 1942 a prvé vozidlá, teraz pomenované "Bishop " (podľa nomenklatúry vznikli u 121. poľného pluku RA), sa dostali do Západnej púšte včas, aby sa zúčastnili 2. bitky pri El Alameine (október 1942).

ww2dbase Biskup bohužiaľ mal niekoľko nedostatkov. Bolo to pomalé (13 mph) a nepohodlné a ohraničenie boxu znamenalo, že zbraň nemohla dosiahnuť maximálnu výšku (nadmorská výška 15 stupňov a pokles 5 stupňov), čo preto výrazne obmedzilo dosah zbraní iba na 5852 metrov (6400 yardov) ) -menej ako polovicu rozsahu, ktorý by mohol dosiahnuť na bežnom poľnom vozíku. Štvorčlennej posádke výrazne prekážal v práci priestor v boxe, do ktorého sa okrem priestoru, ktorý zaberajú pištole a posádka, muselo zmestiť aj 32 nábojov. Priechod zbraní bol rovnako zlý iba na 8 stupňov. Okrem toho sa zistilo, že vysoká silueta Bishopa je vynikajúcim cieľom pre nepriateľských strelcov.

ww2dbase V čase, keď bol biskup predstavený, 25-pounder už nebol používaný v protitankovej úlohe. Koncom roku 1942 túto úlohu čoraz viac preberali nové protitankové delá 6-Pdr (57 mm), ktoré začali vo veľkom prichádzať do divadla. Biskupi boli teda presmerovaní na použitie delostrelectva.

ww2dbase Do júla 1942 bolo postavených sto biskupov a takmer všetci boli zapojení do severoafrických kampaní, hoci niektorí pokračovali v akcii na Sicílii a v prvých týždňoch kampane v Taliansku. Bol čo najskôr nahradený americkým 105 mm M7 Priest alebo kanadským 25-pdr Sextonom. Biskup ako zámer na riešenie núdzovej situácie slúžil svojmu účelu primerane v dôležitom čase vojny, ale možno najužitočnejšou funkciou biskupov bolo inštruktážne vozidlo, ktoré malo pluky naučiť základy taktiky samohybných zbraní.

ww2dbase Zdroje:
Ilustrovaná encyklopédia vojenských vozidiel (Ian V Hogg & amp John Weeks, -Hamlyn, 1980)
Obrnené bojové vozidlá (Philip Trewbitt, Dempsey-Parr, 1999)
Tanky a iné obrnené bojové vozidlá 1942-1945 (B. T. White, Blandford Press, 1975)
Tankové bitky v miniatúre (Donald Featherstone, Patrick Stephens ltd, 1977)

Posledná väčšia revízia: september 2009

Valentín Mk I. biskup

StrojeJeden naftový motor AEC A190 s výkonom 131 koní
OdpruženieTrojkolesové podvozky odpružené cievkou
Výzbroj1x húfnica QF 25pdr (32 nábojov), 1x guľomet Bren 1x7,7 mm
BrnenieTrup 8-60 mm, nadstavba 13-51 mm
Posádka4
Dĺžka5,53 m
Šírka2,63 m
Výška2,83 m
Hmotnosť17,0 t
Rýchlosť24 km/h
Rozsah145 km

Páčil sa vám tento článok alebo bol tento článok pre vás užitočný? Ak je to tak, zvážte podporu nás na Patreone. Aj 1 dolár za mesiac pôjde dlhú cestu! Ďakujem.


Biskup

Biskup bol prvým britským samohybným delostreleckým vozidlom založeným na podvozku Valentine II. Oficiálny názov bol Ordance QF 25-pdr Mk2 alebo 3 na nosnej pištoli Valentine 25-pdr Gun Mk1. V priebehu celého roku 1941 britské a spoločenské divízie v Západnej púšti mali len málo na boj proti dobre obrneným nemeckým stredným tankom, okrem takmer zbytočnej chlapčenskej protitankovej pušky a emisného protitankového dela 2-pdr (40 mm) divízneho protitankového tanku. Pluky. Aj keď tieto boli primerane účinné proti ľahko obrneným talianskym tankom, neboli úplne dostatočné na to, aby sa zmocnili silnejšie obrnených nemeckých tankov. Preto sa urýchlene uskutočnila konverzia na vytvorenie samohybného dela vyzbrojeného húfnicou 25 Pounder.

V dôsledku toho malo vozidlo mnoho problémov.


Biskupská pištoľ mala obmedzenú výšku, čo značne znížilo jej dostrel. Aby to mohli kompenzovať, museli by jeho posádky často postaviť zo zeme veľké rampy, aby bolo možné vozidlo nakloniť. Aby vozidlo pojalo aj 25 -palcový kanón, muselo mať aj vysokú siluetu.


Vďaka týmto faktorom, kombinujúcim valentínsku charakteristickú pomalú rýchlosť a tenké brnenie, bol biskup takmer univerzálne prijatý a čoskoro bol nahradený kňazom M7 a Sextonom. Vyrobených bolo len asi 140 týchto vozidiel.


Prvýkrát sa zúčastnil akcie počas druhej bitky pri El Alameine v severnej Afrike a slúžil aj počas ranej časti talianskej kampane.


Fóra NavWeaps

Nestačí, že je Boh na našej strane. Musíme byť aj na Bohu.

2+2 = 4: Perspektíva v bielom, západná matematika, ktorá marginalizuje ostatné možné hodnoty.

05. október 2017 #13 2017-10-05T11: 31

40 mm Bofors bol tiež občas vtlačený do role AT, očividne ho brnenie prekonalo rýchlejšie ako 25 pdr.
Obmedzením biskupa ako pištole SP AT sa mi zdá obmedzený traverz a vysoký profil. Archer bol veľmi užitočný a rovnako dlho trvalo, kým sa dostal kamkoľvek, a trochu dlhšie trvalo, kým sa dostal do palebnej polohy a von z nej - pištoľ sa odrazila cez sedadlo vodiča, takže pri streľbe musel byť mimo cesty a potom sa vrátiť späť pred kolobežkou.
Podľa popisu Chrisa Bishopa sa mi zdá, že RA sa rozhodla, že keďže sa používalo asi 25 pdr ako dostatočne blízko vyhradených AT zbraní, mali by byť umiestnené na vyhradených držiakoch SP, aby zvyšok zostal väčšinou v úlohe General Support (GS). V čase, keď boli vagóny dodané, bolo 6 pdr a možno 17 pdr dostatočne, aby v úlohe AT normálne nebolo 25 pdr, takže biskupi boli uvedení do prevádzky ako GS. Tam, kde neboli zbytoční, ale ukázali - pravdepodobne potvrdili -, že niekoľko bodov ich usporiadania nie je vhodných na prácu. Postavených bolo len niekoľko, ale aj keď skôr, nižšie a s väčším traverzom (povedzme 25 pdr Archer), zostali by so zlepšením pancierovania tanku pozadu. 25pdr Archer by, samozrejme, pravdepodobne čoskoro bol upravený na 17 pdr verziu.

Bishop je teda menej prvým britským návrhom zbraní SP GS a viac jednou z britských zbraní SP AT. V čase, keď sa dostalo k jednotkám, sa stalo užitočnejším ako chybný kus GS než ako chybný kus AT. Všimnite si toho, že dovtedy sa bojovalo v Tunisku a Taliansku, kde boli pušky SP AT aj tak menej žiadané.

„Buďte harmonickí, obohacujte vojakov, pohŕdajte inými mužmi“

„Kto bojuje so zlom, dávaj si pozor, aby si sa stal zlým.“

"Úspešné, ako sa veci vyvíjajú na víťaznej strane, zabilo viac nepriateľov dobrými, tupými taktikami než jeho vlastné zlé, vzrušujúce."

05. október 2017 #14 2017-10-05T17: 20

05. október 2017 #15 2017-10-05T17: 52

05. október 2017 #16 2017-10-05T22: 49

EwenS napísal: Myslím si, že všetky vyššie popísané problémy s biskupom pochádzajú zo skutočnosti, že to bola uponáhľaná práca vo vojne bez toho, aby mal ktokoľvek jasnú predstavu o tom, čo bolo v prvom rade potrebné, pretože sa to ešte predtým nerobilo alebo o všetkom predtým. naučený bol zabudnutý.
Ak predpokladáte, že to mal byť umelecký kúsok GS, ktorý sa z vašich neskorších bodov zdá byť, tak bol zabudnutý. Všeobecné usporiadanie brezovej pištole by bolo lepšie ako biskup, očividne to umožňovalo plný priechod, ktorý sa nevyžaduje, ale bol by lepší ako nestačí ako na biskupa a v úplnej výške. Byť schopný zapojiť striedavé napätie už nebolo pre poľné umenie do roku 41 skutočne žiaduce, ale používať maximálny dosah by bolo.
Jeho vývoj poukázal na všetky problémy, ktoré bolo potrebné vyriešiť.
Vyžehlené? Nič také, ako to Británia postavila alebo prijala, nikdy potom. To nie je žehlenie.
Mnoho z týchto problémov bolo obmedzených veľkosťou valentínskeho podvozku, ktorý bol uznávaný ako malý dokonca aj pre tank tej doby, ale pre britský tank mal tú výhodu, že bol spoľahlivý. Treba poznamenať, že išlo o prestavby z existujúcich podvozkov tankov, aj keď sa vykonávali v továrni, a nie o prehodnotenie.
Ak chcete SP 25 pdr pre GS umeleckú prácu, možno.
Cúvanie voza ako lukostrelec vám môže priniesť fungujúce vozidlo, ale pravdepodobne by na to potrebovalo niečo na nosenie munície. Wespe dostal nosič munície, biskupi urobili jednoduchú vec a vliekli rovnaké ramená, aké používalo bežných 25 pdr. Neviem, či mali dve ramená na zbraň a ďalší vagón, ktorý ich miešal sem a tam ako normálne poľné batérie.
Ak chcete protitankový kanón SP, ktorý dokáže ľahko zničiť čokoľvek na bojovom poli 41. júna a mal by zostať nejaký čas schopný, odpovedal by na toto volanie veľmi rýchlo Archer s 25 pdr. Všimnite si „SP AT gun“ nie je lovec tankov, lovecký tank ani stíhač tankov, je to len AT zbraň, ktorá obetuje minimum veľkosti a ukrytia, aby sa dokázala sama pohybovať.

Zdá sa, že vývoj začína tým, že spoločnosť Birmingham Railway Carriage & amp Wagon Company, ktorá už vyrábala valentínsky tank, bola v júni 1941 požiadaná o vytvorenie návrhu, ktorý by dal 25 pdr do valentínskeho podvozku. V auguste 1941 sa testoval prototyp a v novembri 1941 bola zadaná výrobná zmluva na 100 kusov. V júli 1942 bola zadaná ďalšia objednávka na 50 kusov. V tom čase bolo postavených asi 80 kusov, pričom príčinou meškania sa zdala byť výroba brnení. Väčšina išla do zahraničia. Do služby vstúpil včas pre 2. El Alamein v októbri 1942 a zdá sa, že bol do značnej miery mimo prevádzky v čase invázie do Talianska v septembri 1943.
6 pdr vstúpilo do služby v máji 42 a bolo v tom roku v Churchilloch, Valentínoch a Križiakoch, ako aj vlečnom (a portežskom) použití. Ak mám pravdu povedať, biskupov to odsúdilo na zánik, ich pôvodnú úlohu bolo možné vykonať inými prostriedkami. Ako GS arty boli ešte viac chybné ako ako SP AT zbrane, SP GS arty bolo príjemnejšie mať a M7 bol aj tak lepší, takže výroba čoskoro skončila a nasledovala služba.

V USA sa úvahy o samohybnom delostrelectve začínajú vážne začať v auguste 1941 a taktiež neboli bez problémov.
Ak mal byť Bishop SP GS arty, ktorým M7 určite bol. Keďže v každej britskej divízii je 72 25 ppm, objednávka za 150 neznie tak, ako keby ste ich urobili SP. Pri jednej batérii na regta by to bolo 18 regtov, ktoré by vybavili rovnaký počet divov, ale pravdepodobne to môžete znížiť na tretinu, aby ste vzali do úvahy potrebu školenia, rezervy atď. Rovnako, ak Bishop alebo niečo podobné bol vozeň SP GS budúcnosti, niektorí by zostali doma, ale väčšina odišla do zámoria. Mne to skôr pripadá ako jednorazové úsilie SP AT.
Ekvivalenty USA by boli TD, ktoré začínali na 37 mm na ľahkom kolesovom podvozku, čo by nebolo oveľa užitočnejšie ako 2pdr portees, ak vôbec. Ďalší (IIRC) bol 75 mm na polovičných koľajniciach, dostatočne schopný pri prvom nasadení a ľahšie použiteľný ako Bishop, ale nie až do štandardu 25 pdr. Potom M10, ktorý by takmer vo všetkých smeroch deklasoval biskupa - možno okrem hrúbky panciera.

17pdr Archer sa začal vyvíjať v septembri 1942 a napriek tomu, že bol prijatý do služby v júni 1943, zdá sa, že výroba sa začala až v apríli 1944 a potom iba v malých množstvách, takže celý výrobný cyklus nebol dokončený do konca vojny, ktorá viedla do zrušeného reamindera. Archer mal byť dočasným prostriedkom na mobilizáciu ťažkého nepraktického 17 -tankového protitankového dela. V pláne bolo, aby zbraň niesol tank (čo sa stalo A30 Challenger od polovice roku 1944 s veľkou vysokou ťažkou vežou - 200 objednanou a postavenou v roku 1944) a samohybné delo na rovnakom podvozku (A30 Avenger SP2 s otvorenou strechou veža s nižším profilom - 80 zostrojených z 230 objednaných), ktoré sa objavili až po vojne.
Nie som si istý, či mal byť Archer medzipriestor, ako som už uviedol vyššie, nebol to TD, JdPz alebo PzJgr, ale SP 17pdr, ktorý nebol oveľa väčší ako základná zbraň, ale mohol sa sám pohybovať a dávať posádka väčšiu ochranu. V prevádzke zostal do päťdesiatych rokov minulého storočia.

Všetky tieto oneskorenia znamenali, že Spojené kráľovstvo muselo dostať 17 pdr do tanku Sherman (varianty Firefly) od začiatku roku 1944 a torpédoborca ​​M10 (M10C Achilles) od polovice roku 1944, aby poskytlo potrebné stroje na zabíjanie tankov.
A do 44. júna získať potrebné ciele mimo Talianska, kde mala pancierová vojna konkrétne problémy a ťahané 6 pdr a 17 pdr zvládali v pohode, kým neboli k dispozícii SP.

„Buďte harmonickí, obohacujte vojakov, pohŕdajte inými mužmi“

„Kto bojuje so zlom, dávaj si pozor, aby si sa stal zlým.“

"Úspešné, ako sa veci vyvíjajú na víťaznej strane, zabilo viac nepriateľov dobrými, tupými taktikami než jeho vlastné zlé, vzrušujúce."


Vylepšené britské tanky z ranej vojny?

Mysleli ste Bishp skôr ako Sexton? Sexton bol anglo-kanadským ekvivalentom M7. Ale bez ohľadu na základné vozidlo, možno jednoduchší a lepší ekvivalent Bishopu skôr. Dôvod, prečo som navrhol 18pdr, okrem možnej dostupnosti, je ten, že predchádzajúce verzie mali dosah 6000 metrov v nadmorskej výške iba 16 stupňov, čo by mohlo znamenať, že by ste mohli mať nižší kasemat. Zaujímalo by ma, či výška OTL Bishop mala vyhovovať nadmorskej výške 25 pdr?

To vyvoláva ďalšiu otázku. Ak je k dispozícii úzka podpora - a to sa týka aj organizácie a taktiky - existuje taká naliehavá potreba urýchleného uvedenia 6pdr do prevádzky? Čítal som o adaptéri Littlejohn - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Littlejohn_adaptor - na Wiki a ďalších stránkach. Existujú informácie, že niektoré posádky obrnených automobilov ponechali adaptér vypnutý a prienik pomocou škrupiny APSV bol stále lepší ako normálny 2pdr AP. V skutočnosti 2pdr APCR? Takže možno POD, kde sa tento vývoj presadil skôr kvôli nedostatku 6pdr a máte tanky vyzbrojené 2pdr, ktoré môžu preniknúť do neskorých modelov Pzkpfw III a IV a s podporou organického delostrelectva?

Tomo pauk

Paul_Sussex

Rikša

Ospravedlňujeme sa - môj príspevok prerušil skutočný život.

Mysleli ste Bishp skôr ako Sexton? Sexton bol anglo-kanadským ekvivalentom M7. Ale bez ohľadu na základné vozidlo, možno jednoduchší a lepší ekvivalent Bishopu skôr. Dôvod, prečo som navrhol 18 pdr, okrem možnej dostupnosti, je ten, že predchádzajúce verzie mali dosah 6 000 metrov v nadmorskej výške iba 16 stupňov, čo by mohlo znamenať, že by ste mohli mať nižší kasemat. Zaujímalo by ma, či výška OTL Bishop mala vyhovovať nadmorskej výške 25 pdr?

Prepáčte, biskup, nie Sexton. Biskupovým základným problémom bolo, že zbraň bola umiestnená na vrch trupu a strecha nadstavby bola umiestnená cez vrchol, čím sa obmedzila nadmorská výška. Ak by bol Glacisov plech odrezaný tak, aby poskytoval polohu pre zbraň (a vodič sa pohyboval), potom by nebol problém.

Yulzari

Vyladenie Valentína je pravdepodobne najlepší POD v období, pretože to bol najlepšie vyvážený a spoľahlivý tank vo výrobe as osvedčeným vývojom zbraní IOTL. Zahrávať si so zavesením alebo objemom trupu míňa zmysel Valentína. Bola to minimálna výkonná nádrž na prácu s odpružením a pancierom, ktorá pracovala v dobovom období, a tiež so spoľahlivým hnacím ústrojenstvom. Zväčšite ho a pridajte väčšiu váhu ako IOTL a začnete kolo vyššej hmotnosti, teda nové odpruženie, takže väčšia hmotnosť, takže potrebuje väčšiu silu. Teda väčší trup, takže hmotnosť opäť stúpa a tak ďalej. S novou nádržou skončíte náhodou a nie podľa návrhu. S 2 Pounder alebo 6 Pounder alebo QF 75 mm nemôžete skutočne urobiť oveľa viac ako IOTL, ale jeden by mohol poskytnúť lepšiu sadu munície bez vynájdenia technológie AH. HE (ktorý bol vykonaný), Canister (vyrobený v USA 37 mm), APDS (ktorý bol vykonaný) a dajte ich k dispozícii na servis podľa potreby. Motorový priestor je malý a verzie s väčším objemom (preťažené a/alebo preťažené) motorov OTL by boli najjednoduchšou cestou k miernemu zvýšeniu výkonu. Dobré maximálne 300 koní pred tým, ako si hnacia jednotka vyžiada nemocenskú listinu a týždeň voľna. Áno, je pomalé optimalizovať podľa návrhu na prácu pri nižších maximálnych rýchlostiach, ale byť schopný ich udržať na zlom teréne. V skutočnosti väčšina rýchlejších tankov dňa nebola oveľa rýchlejšia, keď boli mimo cesty. Sovietom sa páčil najmä relatívny pokoj Valentína. Možno by mohli byť pneumatika a dráha ešte tichšie a výfukové plyny tiež? Pozitívny tajný tank v porovnaní s týčiacim sa cinkajúcim veľkým Shermanom. Neviem o dnešných MBT na bojisku, ale za mojich čias ste počuli Chieftanov na míle ďaleko od škrípania koľají, než ste počuli motory.

Ide mi o to, vyvinúť lepšieho skutočného Valentína, kým nepríde ďalšia generácia dobre testovaná počas posledných troch rokov vojny. Nerobiť takmer nový tank, takto by ste urobili Valentína, keby ste začali odznova. Klasický best je nepriateľom dobra.

Pre zbrane SP a 17 Pounder máme ako vzor OTL Archer.

Všetko by to fungovalo s filozofiou typu Sherman. Máme nádrž, ktorá funguje. Zabudnite na hlúposti s ostatnými. Stačí ich vypísať pre všetky roly, zatiaľ čo sa pravidlo posúvača a kresliace dosky na kreslenie sústredia na jednu dobrú náhradu. Žiadny Tetrach, Covenantor, Crusader, Matilda alebo Churchill a všetky ich 1 100 alternatív a verzií. Vezmite si Valentína a bežte s ním. Áno, skončí to s vežou pre 2 osoby, ale s vežou pre 2 osoby, ktorá príde na bojisko so všetkými svojimi kamarátmi, je lepšie, ako keď veža s 3 mužmi sedí na trupe v dielni, továrni alebo pri ceste.


Sir John Valentine Carden prežil.

2 000 snímok za sekundu nie je veľmi ploché snímanie a keďže pomalý letový čas robí zameranie ťažším, vzhľadom na nízke úsilie o metódy hľadania diaľok v USA a Veľkej Británii počas 2. svetovej vojny.

Ak sa predáva ako pechotný tank, výber škrupín preváži tieto nevýhody. Ako krížnik to nie je také dobré, pretože to majú byť najskôr dierkovače.

Vickers 75 mm AA bol v rumunských službách načerpaný na takmer 2 800 fps, za cenu, že bude oveľa horším sudovým horákom ako KwK 42 L70

Bougnas

V skutočnosti to bolo celkom porovnateľné so sériou 90 mm kanónov M36/M41 s vysokým výkonom. Vyššia rýchlosť, takže presnejšia v dlhom dosahu, zhruba rovnaká penetrácia, APDS bola lepšia ako HVAP. Horšie je to bez HEAT, ale je to preto, že Briti sa nikdy nepokúsili získať HEAT muníciu.

Hlavným problémom je, že zdanlivo držal veľký systém spätného rázu, zatiaľ čo USA išli na sústredný spätný ráz, ktorý bol oveľa kompaktnejší. L7 bol navrhnutý tak, aby udržal systém záveru a spätného rázu od 20 pdr, takže si tento problém zachoval.

Coulsdon Eagle

MarcH

Dva údery proti 25 pdr v tankoch.

Samostatné načítanie. tak nízke RoF

2 000 snímok za sekundu nie je veľmi ploché snímanie a keďže pomalý čas letu sťažuje zameranie, vzhľadom na nízke úsilie o metódy diaľkového hľadania v USA a Veľkej Británii počas 2. svetovej vojny.

Ak sa predáva ako pechotný tank, výber škrupín preváži tieto nevýhody. Ako krížnik to nie je také dobré, pretože to majú byť najskôr dierkovače.

Vickers 75 mm AA bol v rumunských službách načerpaný na takmer 2 800 fps, za cenu, že bude oveľa horším sudovým horákom ako KwK 42 L70

Nemyslím tým použitie skutočného 25-pounderu Ordnance QF ako tankového dela. Navrhoval som použiť rovnaký kaliber ako 25pdr, teda 3,45 palca alebo 87,6 mm. Briti vytvorili novú zbraň, ktorá hovorí, že QF 88 mm HV, ktorá používa nové jedno nábojové kolo, a nie oddelené nabíjanie ako 25 pdr. Môžete si stiahnuť vrtuľník do plášťa HE a udržať ho na 2 000 ft/s, zatiaľ čo plášť AP (tak ako tak na APCBC) bude pravdepodobne okolo 25 libier pri 2 700-2 800 stop/s.

Je to nová zbraň, ktorá používa existujúci kaliber a existujúce nástroje, ktoré Británia veľmi rada robila. Je to tiež dostatočne veľký krok oproti ekvivalentu TTL Vickers 77 mmHV voči TTL, ak sa veci vyvíjajú tak, aby sa oplatilo vyvíjať, a pritom nebolo také obludne obrovské ako niečo ako Pounder QF 32.

Derwit

Ramp-Rat

Čítal som tento TL s veľkým záujmom, ale doteraz som sa zdržal komentovania. Teraz však verím, že som schopný pridať svoje dve haliere v hodnote, a uvidíme, či môžem nejakou malou čiastkou prispieť. Po prvé, čo sa stalo, a čo je dôležitejšie, čo sa nestalo. V tejto TL žije jeden muž, ktorý v OTL zomrel, ale nič iné sa nezmenilo. Briti stále nie sú úplne pripravení na nadchádzajúci konflikt, okrem jednej malej oblasti výzbroje sa väčšina britských síl nemá o nič lepšie ako v OTL. RN stále dominuje gang veľkých zbraní a ich spojenie s bojovými loďami a možnosť vojny proti Japonsku na Ďalekom východe „vedeli“, že nemecké námorníctvo je menšou hrozbou a že oni a Francúzi môžu ľahko sa vysporiadať s Talianmi. Len sa prebúdzajú k hrozbe, ktorú predstavujú nemecké ponorky, ale je to zvládnuteľné, pretože Nemecko v súčasnosti nemá veľkú podmorskú flotilu ani priamy prístup k Atlantiku. Pád Francúzska trval na premene nemeckých ponoriek na zvládnuteľný problém na krvavú nočnú moru.

RAF dominuje Bomber Gang, ktorý si myslí, že nadchádzajúcu vojnu môžu vyhrať sami. A to napriek tomu, že nemá životaschopný moderný ťažký bombardér, posádky majú k dispozícii jeden, ak existuje, letiská za každého počasia, z ktorých ho môžu založiť, alebo schopnosti a vybavenie, ktoré ho majú dostať k cieľu a bombardovať ich. Napriek námietkam bol nútený vyvinúť v tej dobe najlepší a najprepracovanejší národný systém protivzdušnej obrany na svete. Ale bojovníci stále lietajú v tesných Vic Threes, nie v prstových štvorkách, chýba rezerva pilotov, ktorí by zodpovedali za bojové straty, a Bomber Gang si stále myslí, že spôsob, ako zabrániť nemeckým leteckým útokom, je za denného svetla bombardovať nemecké továrne na lietadlá. . Podľa vôle ponorky sa Francúzsko po páde Francúzska chystá padnúť, bez ohľadu na to, aké malé zlepšenie tankovej flotily Brittons urobí. Navrhovaný BAFF, britské vojenské letectvo vo Francúzsku, nemá správne lietadlo, základne alebo riadiacu štruktúru ani taktiku na to, aby robilo prácu, na ktorú je určené.

Armáda, ktorá bola počas medzivojnových rokov v spodnej časti stromu financovania, nebola takmer pripravená na záväzok, ktorý na ňu britská vláda vynaložila, po rokoch, keď sa jej hovorilo, že Británia sa nezúčastní pristáť opäť vo veľkom európskom konflikte. Teraz sa mali pripraviť na poskytovanie britských expedičných síl BEF, ale až do roku 1938 sa diskutovalo o veľkosti a zložení sily. Až v roku 1939 sa Británia plne zaviazala poskytnúť poľné sily na použitie vo Francúzsku. A až 27. apríla bol v Británii zavedený obmedzený odvod, iba 4 mesiace pred vypuknutím vojny. Britská armáda trpela mnohými nevýhodami, väčšina dôstojníkov bola podľa štandardov 1. svetovej vojny staršia a nemala dostatok výcviku na boj proti modernej vojne vysokej intenzity. Do posledného roku prvej svetovej vojny bol priemerný vek podplukovníka zodpovedného za peší prápor začiatkom tridsiatky a po vypuknutí druhej svetovej vojny to bolo štyridsať päť plus. Britská pechota stále používala závorovú akčnú pušku, ktorá mala prvú aliteráciu ako zbraň z čierneho prachu, a potom začala fajčiť menej prášku. Briti nemali domorodý SMG, v skutočnosti nemali SMG vôbec. Napriek tomu, že Británia mohla v medzivojnových rokoch vyvinúť zrkadlovku .270, vedeli, že ju potrebujú, bez ohľadu na to, či peniaze alebo vôľa existujú. Zoznam zlyhaní britskej armády je dlhý, ale väčšina z nich musí byť položená pri nohách vlády, ktorá si nedokázala stanoviť realistické ciele alebo poskytnúť dostatočné finančné prostriedky.

Napriek všetkým svojim nedostatkom mala britská armáda oproti všetkým ostatným v Európe dve výhody. Väčšina jej kancelárií videla slona, ​​to znamená, že videli boj, aj keď len v obmedzenom rozsahu, pri kontrole polície v Impériu. A veľa stredných radov pôsobilo počas prvej svetovej vojny, takže mala predstavu o rozsahu modernej vojny. Skutočnosť, že veľa z nich verilo, že nadchádzajúci konflikt bude opakovaním konfliktu z prvej svetovej vojny, zákopov a prechádzania tašiek. Zabudol som na lekcie posledných sto dní a mobilná vojna a integrácia všetkých zbraní ukazuje na nedostatočnú inteligenciu. Druhým bolo to, že iná ako malá americká armáda, ktorá bola v roku 1939 polovičná ako belgická armáda a do roku 1941 nebola silná viac ako milión. Britská armáda bola po vypuknutí v plnom rozsahu motorizovaná svetovej vojny, áno, v končinách Impéria bolo niekoľko konských jednotiek, ale jednotky, ktoré odišli do Francúzska a severnej Afriky, boli plne vybavené motorovými vozidlami. Možno boli málo napájaní, nie tak robustní, ako by bolo potrebné, ale všetky poháňal spaľovací motor, nie seno a ovos.


Ako teda udalosti tohto TL doteraz zmenili veci a aký vplyv môžu mať v nasledujúcich rokoch. Po prvé, doterajšie efekty sú veľmi malé, zmenilo sa iba to, že Británia môže mať v roku 1940 malý počet výrazne lepších tankov. HMS Royal Oak bude stále potopený v Scapa Flow, Guntherom Prienom v U 47, HMS Courageous vyslaný Winstonom na mravčiu ponorkovú hliadku, sa stále potopí v U 29, rovnako ako HMS Glorious počas nórskej kampane. RAF sa chystá dostať svoj zadok do toho, pokúša sa bombardovať nemeckú flotilu za denného svetla a premosťuje rieku Meuse v 39/40. Nórska kampaň bude v teréne úplnou katastrofou. Ak však pôjde všetko tak, ako má, bude to smrť nemeckého námorníctva a hlavný dôvod, prečo nevysloviteľný morský cicavec nemal v pekle šancu na snehové gule. úspechu. Až keď sa dostaneme do bitky o Arras, uvidíme výrazné zmeny, či už v samotnej bitke, alebo v nasledujúcich udalostiach. Buďme veľkorysí a vzdajme Britom vďaku za vylepšenú produkciu tankov pred rokom 1940 a za lepšie tanky vďaka tomu, že Sir John je nažive. 100 A11 s 2lb pom Pom a 30 Vickers Valentines so 6lb zbraňou. Napriek tomu, že Briti dlhodobo bitku nevyhrajú, popoludňajší zásah Luftwaffe Britov zastaví. Je pravdepodobné, že Nemci utrpia výrazne vyššie straty, pravdepodobne vrátane Rommela, a budú veľkým šokom pre ich systém.

Vzhľadom na šok, ktorý Nemci dostali, a ešte deň na plánovanie obrany Calais, je 3. RTR vybavený A11, nie zmesou ľahkých tankov a krížnikov. Šance, že Calais aj Dunkirk budú môcť byť nejaký čas použité na evakuáciu, sú oveľa lepšie, aj keď vzhľadom na nasadenie britskej armády v tej dobe bude Dunkirk hlavným evakuačným bodom. Avšak vzhľadom na to, že Luftwaffe sa teraz musí rozšíriť do dvoch prístavov a bola IOTL, snažila sa zaútočiť na jeden a naďalej podporovať nemecký útok do Francúzska. Často sa zabúda na to, že bitka okolo Dunkerque neprebehla izolovane a že nemecká armáda a Luftwaffe boli stále zapojené do významných akcií inde vo Francúzsku. Ak rozdelíte útok Luftwaffe na dva prístavy, bude menej účinný a poskytne RAF väčšiu šancu zasiahnuť. Áno, budú môcť Briti dostať z Francúzska viac vecí, ale iba osobné zbrane, delostrelectvo, tanky, obrnené autá a nákladné autá zostanú pozadu. Je však možné, že väčšina zostávajúceho zariadenia bude úplne nefunkčná a bude vhodná iba na šrot.

Zverejnite Dunkirk za predpokladu, že Winston nezbalí všetky jednotky na loď a nepošle ich do Francúzska v šialenom romantickom šaškovi. Británii sa podarilo dostať z Francúzska viac mužov, Britov aj Francúzov, plus niekoľko tisíc Belgičanov a Holanďanov. Ak sa Británia zvýši o 10%, vojská privezené domov, a 10% z toho všetkého znamená ďalších 30 až 40 tisíc mužov. Vzhľadom na to, že vzhľadom na prežitie sira Johna, Británia vyrába dva životaschopné tanky v roku 1940 podľa jeho návrhu a vďaka jeho zásahu sú všetci výrobcovia tankov lepšie nastavení, ako boli. Nie je potrebné, aby britská vláda prepadla panike z nedostatku tankov a hrozby invázie. To im poskytne príležitosť sústrediť sa na zvýšenie výroby nákladných automobilov, ktorých bude nedostatok. More tanks and more lorries, especially more lorries will have a major impact on events in North Africa.


Bishop

Autor: Zamestnanec spisovateľ | Naposledy upravené: 08.08.2018 | Obsah a kópiawww.MilitaryFactory.com | Nasledujúci text je len pre tieto stránky.

In the decades following World War 1, the British Army rewrote their armored warfare doctrine to include two distinct groups of combat tanks - "cruiser tanks" and "infantry tanks". Cruiser tanks were designed with speed in mind, intended to break past enemy defenses and attack the more vulnerable flanks and rear. The heavier Infantry tanks worked in conjunction with infantry units to break the enemy's center of defense through slower paced operations. In conjunction, the theory would bring about two different forces to achieve a singular objective.

On September 3rd, 1939, Britain formally declared war on Germany marking the official start of World War 2 in Europe. In 1940, the British Army unveiled the "Valentine Infantry Tank", a small thee-man tracked vehicle fitting the QF 2-pounder (40mm). The tank was produced by Vickers-Armstrong and was developed into subsequent marks each fitting progressively larger guns. The initial production mark became the "Valentine Mk I" and this was inevitably followed by the "Valentine Mk II" up to the final "Valentine Mk XI" armed with its 75mm main gun. Differences between the Mk I and Mk II were the latter's use of the AEC A190 6-cylinder diesel engine of 131 horsepower and the addition of an external fuel tank (the original mark utilized the AEC A189 gasoline engine of 135 horsepower).

1940 also saw the introduction of the Royal Ordnance QF25 25-pounder field gun/howitzer. This weapon proved to have an excellent rate-of-fire, accuracy at range and good inherent mobility. The weapon could fire a broad range of ammunition types and quickly settled in as a primary artillery system for the British Army for the duration of the war - even seeing service for decades following.

As the war itself spread an British involvement grew, so too did the list of military requirements based on up-to-the-minute operational experience from the front. The British Army now required a mobile artillery piece capable of supplying "plunging fire" against enemy positions at range. In June of 1941, the heavy industries concern of Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company was charged with developing such an implement. Development saw the selection of the Valentine II tracked chassis and - atop the hull - a fixed, forward-firing slab-sided superstructure was added. Within this superstructure was the fighting compartment which allowed management of the QF25 series field gun installation. At its core, the vehicle was nothing more than an interim solution to a long-term problem - at least until a more capable and purposefully developed weapon system could be manufactured in quantity. A pilot vehicle became available for evaluation in August of 100 and British authorities found the design acceptable enough to the point of placing an order for 100 examples in November of 1941. The new vehicle was formally designated as the "Ordnance QF 25-pdr on Carrier Valentine 25-pdr Mk 1" and was categorized in the British Army as a "self-propelled artillery" system - of "SPA". The vehicle became the first self-propelled artillery system for the British Army.

Outwardly, the Bishop held a unique appearance though not unlike the Soviet KV-2 series which operated in the same role. The Valentine pedigree was clearly on display for the running gear was wholly retained. The vehicle was suspended by a coil spring system featuring three-wheel bogies. There were four small road wheels which were book-ended by a larger road wheel to each track side. The drive sprocket was held at the rear with the track idler at the front. The glacis plate was well-sloped for some ballistics protection while the sides were straight. Equipment could be carried over the fenders. The turret sported flat sides and double-doors along the rear facing. The front turret facing was only slightly sloped with the 25-pounder gun barrel protruding out over the hull. The engine was kept in a rear compartment. Crew accommodations amounted to four personnel to include the driver, commander, gunner and loader. The driver maintained a position in the front left hull with the remaining crew in the turret. Secondary armament was a 0.303 Bren light machine gun though the Bishop was never intended to meet the enemy at close ranges. Armor protection was 8mm to 60mm across major facings.

The British and Commonwealth campaign was now centered on North Africa at this point in the war, particularly against famed German General Erwin Rommel. For the British, North Africa would become the proving ground for their own General Bernard Montgomery. Hundreds of thousands of men as well as thousands of armored vehicles would play a role in this early campaign of the war. On October 23rd, 1942, the Allies - led by Britain - went up against the forces of Germany and Italy to begin the 2nd Battle of El Alamein. The battle would last until November 4th of that year and would become the first combat actions of the 25-pdr Valentine gun carrier. By this time, the British Army referred to her simply as "Bishop".

In practice, few doubted the capabilities of the QF 25 gun. However, it was in the overall design of the vehicle that the Bishop suffered mightily. The use of a fixed superstructure provided for many inherent limitations for the combat vehicle. Firstly, the vehicle had to be turned (in whole) to face the direction of the enemy. Secondly, the limited space within the superstructure directly limited the main gun's elevation to just +15 and -5 degrees and traversal as only 8 degrees itself. As such, gunnery crews took to establishing mounds ahead of the Bishop's hull to angle the vehicle further upwards at the front, thusly increasing the trajectory of their 25-pounder guns. The turret's design also made for a high profile along the clean desert horizon - a tempting target to enemy tankers and anti-tank teams alike (the Soviet KV-2 suffered from the same quality). To compound matters, the addition of a heavy gun and superstructure atop the existing Valentine chassis restricted top road speeds and directly limited operational ranges. The Bishop - fitted with its AEC A190 series diesel engine of 131 horsepower - managed 15 miles per hour on ideal surfaces and up to 90 miles of operational range.

Regardless, the need during wartime was great and the Bishop was utilized. Its 25-pounder main gun did not disappoint but crews generally regarded the Bishop as a forgettable creation. It was only the arrival of the American M3 Lee/Grant-based M7 "Priest" self-propelled artillery system that doomed the Bishop to limited use and secondary roles thereafter. The Canadians took the M7 Priest design a step further and developed the "Sexton" - complete with its 25-pounder main gun - and this was used in increasing numbers by the British Army with time. As such, the Bishop only ever existed in 149 total forms with production spanning from 1942 to 1943. Once quantitative levels of the M7 and Sexton were met, the Bishop fell to the pages of World War 2 history.


Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr gun - History

In 1936 a decision to increase the range to 13.500 yards carried with it approval to design a new equipment capable of firing super charge. Early in 1938 a split-trail pilot equipment had passed technical and field tests, had been approved for introduction into the service, and a small order placed. However, at 41 cwt (2087 kg) it was rather heavy instead the Royal Artillery favored a box-trail carriage with a firing platform as fitted to an experimental 105-mm gun produced by Vickers in 1922. This was an improved version of the original gun wheel platform, developed as an anti-tank measure in 1918 . Production of the split-trail equipment was therefore held up while one of the 25pdr Mark 2 guns was fitted to the Vickers carriage. After a demonstration at the School of Artillery, Larkhill (now the Royal School of Artillery) , those taking part voted unanimously in favor of the latter combination. It became the legendary "25 Pounder Mark 2 on Mark 1 carriage", familiar to all Commonwealth Gunners who served from World War 2 to the 1960s. The Mark 2 gun first saw action in Norway in 1940, and by 1945 over 12 000 had been made, by Britain alone!.

The strength of the carriage was amply demonstrated in 1943 when the first QF 17-pr anti-tank guns were mounted upon it it easily stood up to the much more powerful piece.

The Germans appreciated a good gun when they saw one. They put all 25-pdrs captured in serviceable condition into service in their own forces they formed whole regiments of 25pdrs Mark 2, which they designated 8.76cm FK 280(e) (split-trail carriage) [FK = Feld Kanone, field gun]. They were deployed for coast defense.

A mark 2/1 of the gun emerged in 1942, with the fitting of a Muzzle brake to ease the strain on the carriage caused by the firing of super charge (later super plus increment), and the radiusing of the corners of the breech ring to strengthen it and prevent cracking.

Towards the end of World War 2 a Mark 2 carriage with a wheel-base of reduced width was introduced to enable the gun to be towed by light vehicles, eg jeeps in the jungle, or be carried in an aircraft, but it was far from satisfactory - or popular. Every time the layer turned the traversing handwheel he skinned his knuckles on the left gun wheel.

In order that Armored units might be supported by field guns with the same cross-country performance as tanks, several self-propelled equipments were produced for the Royal Horse Artillery, only two of which saw service. These were the Bishop (25pdr on Valentine tank chassis) and the Sexton (25pdr on Sherman tank chassis).

It was one of the first weapons designed as a gun / howitzer combining the best features of these weapon types. It uses variable charges allowing it the ability to fire its projectiles in a high arc similar to a howitzer but also may fire at high velocities for a flat trajectory. During the fighting in North Africa during 1941-42 it was pressed into use as an anti-tank weapon where it proved itself in that role as well.

The carriage has a circular base plate which is lowered for firing, this raises the wheels off the ground and allows the weapon a 360' traverse. It is designed for high speed travel and a gun shield is provided. The firing platform is in the form of a wheel which is carried either under the trail or on the back of the prime mover. The gun can be placed in firing order on its platform in 1 minute. To place the piece in action, the platform is lowered to the ground and the carriage is then manhandled or tractor-drawn over it and coupled to its center. To permit easy maneuvering of the trail, the spade has been imbedded in a "box" commonly called a "banana," which functions very effectively and prevents the trail from digging in.

Each gun was pulled by a Field Artillery Tractor (FAT), also known as a Quad, behind a trailer, artillery no 27 , better known as a limber. It is a testament to the design of the gun that only one major review was undertaken (1940, resulting in the mark 2) despite the gun remaining in service with various armies to this day. As recently as 1980 some 26 other countries were still employing the 25-pdr, and many probably still are. The last major campaign in which the gun fought was the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971.


Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr gun - History

Some Background

Usually any review starts by saying who makes the kit, in this case it is not that easy. The model originates from Russia as it says clearly on the sprues. From what I hear it came originally from Allan in the CIS, but I have not seen it from them. Instead, I have different examples marketed by DML/Dragon including a North American issue with a very good crew figure, typical 8th Army style but not available in my native England for some reason. To really confuse things it also appears in RPM, Toga and VM boxes. They all contain much the same plastic parts although two styles of tracks can be found, the main difference being packaging, instructions and decals. While the latter seem to be very similar subjects their quality varies. So too does the price, Dragon costing around 24 to 25 in the UK and the others more like 18, although nowadays more and more kits are being discounted and US prices are often very low. It seems Dragon no longer list the Valentine though many of their kits are reissued or have appeared under the Shanghai Dragon label. So plenty for the kit box collectors to search for. As the plastic is the same apart from some variation in colour, assuming you have access to more than one package you can vote with your money when you decide to buy. My constructed example was from a Dragon box but I built it back-to-back with a Toga Bishop and very soon all track was lost of which parts came from which box.

Whichever make you purchase, the vehicle it depicts is the Valentine Infantry Tank. To those not familiar with British WW2 armour or its nomenclature, an 'Infantry Tank' was designed to accompany infantry in the assault and as such was better armoured but slower than the medium 'Cruiser Tank' although its armament was not much different. The first two types of 'I' tank were the A11 and A12, both called Matilda and both used in France in 1940. The second Matilda was very successful in the early Desert battles and later in Australian hands in the Pacific, but the Valentine's career was somewhat different.
First of all, it was unusual in that it was not an official government design. It was developed by Vickers, then as now active in tank design, as a private venture and aimed to be an alternative to the Matilda with the advantage of being cheaper and easier to build. It used the same design of suspension as Vicker's A9 and A10 Cruisers and also the same 2pdr gun, but with more armour to fit its role. It was good enough to be taken into British service in 1940, and was in part responsible for a change in naming practice. Not having an official 'A' design number allotted to tanks when the specification was first issued, it could be called 'Infantry Tank Mk III' but the name Valentine was attached to it. Whatever the disputed origins of this, it was built in large numbers - at around 7250 gun tanks alone, more than any other British wartime tank - by three UK manufacturers and another in Canada.

While designed as an Infantry tank, it was widely used in British armoured divisions ('I' tanks were usually employed in separate Tank Brigades to be attached to infantry divisions on an ad-hoc basis as needed) in the United Kingdom, with many a tank crewman cutting their teeth on them. Its main active employment was in its intended role in North Africa, and a large number were sent as aid to the Soviet Union, over 2000 from the UK with 300 odd more lost en route, and all but 30 of the 1420 Canadian ones being given over. The tank also developed into a series of marks. The main drawback it had was its small size, and the initial design had a cramped turret - I have been inside one so I can vouch for that! - with just enough room for two men and the gun. To overcome this, a revised design extended the turret at the front and back to allow room for three men - been in one of them too, and it is a little better - then it was realised that the 2pdr was no longer powerful enough and a new turret with a 6pdr was designed and fitted. Initially this lacked a co-axial machine gun, so another type with both gun and machine gun was produced, and finally a 75mm was fitted. When added to different engines - initially petrol but later British or mostly General Motors diesels - and the slightly different Canadian ones which used .30 Browning machine guns instead of the 7.92mm BESA and also had the front hull section cast instead of fabricated, there were in the end eleven gun tank marks. Also one SP with a 25pdr field gun of which more separately, another with a 17pdr anti tank gun, a bridgelayer which was widely used, amphibious 'DD' tanks of various marks, and flail mine clearers and a variety of other variants built as one-offs and small runs. Some served as command vehicles in North West Europe in 1945. There are enough variations to build a good armour collection with just Valentines alone!

Yet there has been little interest in the tank from model manufacturers in 1/35 scale. Accurate Armour have produced two gun tanks and the 17pdr Archer and there have been smaller scale versions from Fujimi and Esci, but we have had to wait a long time for a plastic kit in a larger scale. There was a plan to release one in 1/32 many years ago from Airfix but that never happened, in the end it is down to the Russians of all people to come up with the goods. Overall it is worth the wait. Allan have produced a good model of the Mk II variant, with two-man turret mounting a 2pdr gun, which is a good choice as this is the type most widely used in North Africa and most Canadian ones were similar to this type. The other variants all used the same basic hull so we may well see other flavours at a later date, and regardless of that the after market manufacturers could find lots of scope for different turrets. The kit itself is well up to current standards from the CIS, maybe not as good as Dragon could do themselves or the likes of Italeri, Tamiya or AFV Club. The main drawback of release through Dragon is cost, for example I could buy an ex Zvezda SU-100 via Italeri for half the cost of a Dragon Valentine or pay less for a model in a Middle European box, yet the vehicle and resultant model is not that big. But, if you want a Valentine and prefer plastic to resin, at least you have a kit to work from.

Whatever the box the kit itself comes on six sprues, with wheels and turret on their own sections, hull on another, suspension and details on the fourth while two more contain individual link tracks. In total, I counted 135 in grey plastic plus another 240 more track links. Two types of these have turned up in different boxes, with the Dragon distributed one being the one which seems more common in photos. There is some choice of options, with both the small front mudguard sections and the desert style sand shields included, and the standard of design and moulding is good enough for someone used to modern kits. Indeed, straight from the box it makes a very pleasing replica, although there have been a few glitches and as usual there is scope for improvement. The plastic itself can be brittle so take a little care when removing parts from the sprues. Assembly is best done as per the instructions. The suspension is the first part, and needs a little care. The large finned external brake drums parts E74 should be assembled and left to set, then any join line carefully cut and sanded off before fitting to the drum cover E75 and sprocket E73 as once fitted they would be hard to work on. I chose to fit the final drive housings E79 to the hull and add the sprocket unit later.

The four bogie units look more complicated than they really are. Each has a large spring part C40 which will need cleaning up before assembly. Note that the coils of this were square in section so do not attempt to round them off! Fit to the support units C42/C43 or C41/C44, taking care to open the locating hole in one part which is moulded closed. It may be best to assemble the units and clean up the joins before gently opening up the arms and springing the springs into place, keeping the moulded details facing upwards. On the front of the idler mounting parts C50 and C51 is a small extension, in real life a slot to fit the track tension adjusting tool into. This can be opened up for extra realism. As to the wheels, the real vehicle had tires which had a rounded edge, not the square finish as on the kit. This is soon corrected with a little scraping and filing. Painting is easier if the wheels are not assembled until after they have been painted, so you can soon move on to the hull.

This consists of a lower open-topped box, an upper unit with integral mudguards, and some smaller sections. The lower section has a large bulkhead moulded into it so should be good and square, and the parts are well enough designed to match the complex angles of the original tank. One pointer though is to fill the locating holes in the rear vertical plate part A3 as these are for the Bishop's towing hook unit and are not needed on this model. Other than that, just add parts in order, taking care to dry-fit them first and you should not go far wrong. One area which needs a little modification is the driver's hatches. While parts A13 and A14 are fine, straight from the box they are not totally accurate. The front visor plate part A11 should be altered to make a small step where the downward slopes meet the vertical outer edges, with a 1mm horizontal being cut and the slope altered to meet it. This done, shave the hatches A13/A14 to fit with the outer edge in line with the step, so there is a 1mm gap between the vertical edge of the hull and the outer edge of the flap. This is not easy to put into words but is not hard to do. Some filling, either using scrap plastic or your favourite putty, is then needed and you have added some accuracy to your model. A minor point and one you many like to not bother with as it is not too noticeable.

The real vehicle had a series of metal strips around and below the large engine compartment doors part A4 which are added from thin card strip. Other details, engine compartment lower sides parts A5 and A6, try not to mix them up and there should be a distinct gap between their upper edges and the main hull. The many handles parts C62 could be left till a later stage and should be treated with care as they are not too robust. Exhaust muffler unit is hardly seen with its cover in place, the fishtail outlet part C53 is improved by opening its outlet out and adding three small supports into the gap, see the model photos and box art for a guide.

Stowage box arrangements seem to have varied on Valentines. The large forward box parts A7 and A8 had a plain lid on many tanks and I smoothed the moulded ribs off mine. Canadian built vehicles had a distinctive design of diagonal ribs with a round raised shape in the centre which you may like to duplicate. The rear box parts A9/A10 benefits from a new hinge of the same design as its larger counterpart, easily made using a strip of sheet plastic and a length of fine rod or stretched sprue. When the glue has dried thoroughly, make cuts into the rod and remove short lengths to match the kit hinge.

Tools on the model are sparse. The shovel and crowbar unit C60 is adequate but I made the shovel blade less pointed in outline. The handle for the pick C69 needs making from scrap or rod, basically a flattened rod 28mm long will suffice, and the distinctive curved track adjuster needs making. The photos show it and it is soon done from a 'boomerang' of 1mm plastic rod with 26mm long bent in the middle until its overall dimensions are 24mm and 7mm 'across'. L shaped pieces of scrap 4mm long by 2mm high at each end finish the item. See the model pictures for the final appearance.

One other item is the wooden blocks for the jack. There were two short, thick pieces of wood on the real vehicle, and appearances are improved by filing part C59 smooth, scribing a line all around the outer edge and then adding the frame for the blocks and a strap from thin plastic sheet. Note also, the strips across the front and rear at the top were not there on the original, so leave them off unlike me! The rear view mirror part C70 I left off, adding the locating brackets on the hull using the kit part as a guide. Headlights come with deep moulded in indentations where the lens was left clear of the paint used to cut down reflections. These I filled and filed smooth, just painting a small area glossy black for the clear space. Some tanks carried their lights reversed and folded with the lens areas laid down onto the hull to protect them.

The turret needs some work. First of all, the D shaped pistol port on the left side part 23 is the wrong way round, it needs to be carefully removed and re-fixed with the vertical hinge facing forward. The separate port on the other side part 28 could use a bolt head at each corner. Most parts fit well enough but the joint at the front of parts 23 and 24 may need some filler, and I filed the rear lip on the turret back - which is correct in having an opening under it so no filling is needed to block it off - to thin down its outer edges. 2pdr guns came with two styles of barrel, that in the kit with distinctive steps at the muzzle and near the mantlet while others had a smooth transition for the change of outside diameter and a slight belling out at the muzzle. Either can appear on Valentines so watch this if you want to depict a specific vehicle.

Sight vane part 36 can be thinned down or replaced with card or maybe an after-market etching if one is available, and some detailing on the inside face of the hatch flaps parts 33 and 34 is of benefit if you want the hatches open as these had padding on them. Hatch stops can be added from scrap sheet. Turret interior detailing could be done using the basic gun breech parts 29/30 but if you add figures you will not be able to see much anyway. I will leave this to your discretion and refer you to the Museum Ordnance Special or Bellona Print for inspiration.

One common extra fitting was the three boxes for magazines for the anti-aircraft Bren gun, made from plastic sheet these are 8mm wide and high by 6mm front to back, with lid slightly oversize and detailed with scrap strip. The distinctive Lakeman mounting can be made from plastic strip with a Bren taken from a Tamiya Universal Carrier kit or one of several figure or weapons sets, but this is not an easy task and also from photos was not widely used. I did fit a short piece of 0.5mm rod on a scrap of strip on the right of the turret hatch to depict the base for the mount however, and a sun compass bracket from scrap as well on the other side.

While I agonised for some time over making up the tracks, in the end I finally took the parts off the sprue, cleaned them up and assembled them and found it not too difficult. With the bogie units added and the main painting done, the tracks were made up into two long lengths for the track on the ground and four shorter units for the two sections curving upwards. These were painted black with a heavy dry brushing of pale grey - I prefer this to stagy silver but a dull aluminium shade does just as well. Several individual links were painted up and fitted directly to the sprockets and idlers. Ground runs then upswings were glued into place and finally the sprockets and idlers glued on and adjusted to meet up with the upswings. All it needs is a little care. As I wanted a vehicle with sand skirts the top run of the track was not fitted.

Final major item added was the sand skirts A17 and A18 which had the inner faces thinned down for scale effect and the locating lip filed off as with it in place the guards fit too low down, their top edge should align with the top edge of the mudguards. I also had to move the front stiffening rib detail on the left side A18, cutting it off using a thin sharp blade, and repositioning it to line up with the mudguard stay part C57 ahead of the exhaust outlet. In doing this I missed the fact that the sandshields were not vertical, but flared out on the way down. Alas by the time I spotted this it was too late and all I can do is advise you not to make this mistake! As a guide, the outer edge of the vertical 'ribs' on the outer faces of the sandshields should be vertical.

The small mudguards parts A15/A16 are needed to provide contact area for the front of the mudguards, I chose to cut these down and just use their top edge to fill the chamfered area under the mudguards. The real vehicle had rubber or similar sections on the front and rear extremities of the mudguards, the join between these and the sheet metal is depicted on the kit as a zig-zag groove. Many desert vehicles had sheet metal extensions in their place, so I filled and sanded the grooves and added card pieces at the final stage by eye from photos and the kit colour scheme diagrams. Refer to photos of a specific vehicle before you do this as it was not a universal detail. Likewise, some tanks also had a rail along each side of the sandshield to take the steel tube and canvas 'Sunshade' which disguised them as trucks. Looking at photos, this seems to have been fitted to either all tanks in a unit or none, although as vehicles were moved around this would not have been a hard and fast rule. I did not add this item but it is easily made from plastic strip about 1mm square or a little over 1mm deep lengths of 0.25mm sheet, with the same used for five brackets to space it out from the sandshield.

I also kept the extra stowage down as Valentines did not seem to have as much of this as some desert tanks. Common in the desert were extra fuel and water cans, and some tanks had a large auxiliary fuel tank on the left hand side. This item and some one-gallon "flimsy" come in the Bishop variant and a kit could be robbed to add them to your model, or the parts used as a basis to make from scratch. I will not mention the fact that Valentines in Russian service would not use sandshields despite what the Dragon instruction sheet says, while the British ones had sand shields which Toga think they did not..

Colour Schemes

Valentines were painted 'Khaki Green No 3' in the factories with the interior in aluminium according to the original specifications, although this was probably changed to plain white. Home service vehicles usually had the No 4 Dark Green shade added in broad bands. Markings followed the unusual practice of the time, with coloured brigade and divisional signs on the front and rear of the hull, squadron markings on the turret, and vehicle serial numbers in white on the driver's door flaps or sometimes the turret sides and on the hull rear. I decided on a desert vehicle but hit a couple of snags when finishing my model. One was deciding which unit to depict, and the other was that I could not find my Dragon decal sheet so safely had I stored it. However, I did have a Toga one, and this coincided with my final choice of subject.

My model depicts a vehicle from 40th Battalion, Royal Tank Regiment on Ruweisat Ridge in July 1942. The Toga sheet gives full decals for the tank commanded by Second Lieutenant L Wiard - named CULLODEN, it was vehicle 10 in C Squadron, the red circle and number decal is correct and all it needs is the area behind the 10 painting in a rough green circle while the rest of the vehicle was 'Pale Stone' or sand yellow, not sand and brown as listed on the Toga colour notes. Trackguard front and rear extensions were not carried. I chose another vehicle of the same unit without the white lettered name or turret markings but with trackguard extensions. 40RTR tanks in photos of the time did not have the long flat rails on the trackguards for Sunshade cover which make the tank look like a lorry when seen by prying aircraft. The white 40 on red square and green and black GO sign of the 8th Armoured Division could be found on other sheets or hand painted, these marks seem to have appeared on the front only, although the vehicle in the Tank Museum, Bovington here in the UK has them on the back photos show that was not always the case at least.

Both the Toga and Dragon sheets also have decals for 50RTR in Tunisia 1943 - not 'El Alamein' as the Dragon colour notes suggest - and while not too bad some details are a little out. The vehicle's name RESPOND was in a dark shade, possibly black, and the turret appears to have a C Squadron circle, although possibly also HQ in small letters within that. Colour seems to be pale stone and green or possibly brown, somewhat the worse for wear after pursuing the Afrika Korps for many long miles. Trackguard extensions are not fitted or missing, but the rail for sunshade was carried.

Mixing decals could also give marks for 40RTR in Tunisia, they carried the 23rd Armoured Brigade's black and white 'Liver Bird' depicting their Liverpool origins on the left front and 40 on the red square on the right, a mirror image of those in 50RTR - who says markings instructions are always obeyed? Colours were sand and green in bands.

Dragon give a set of markings for '1st Army Tank Brigade' and I think this is a machine of 8th Battalion, Royal Tank Regiment. Another of their vehicles named HAL II appears in a photo to have a three colour camouflage scheme, with an upper band in a dark shade which varied from dark grey to purple brown, a middle band in pale blue-grey and the lower surfaces sand yellow. The white-red-white recognition marks were often obscured with paint or a mixture of oil and sand as they were a good aiming point for Afrika Korps gunners.

Both decal sheets show the same Red Army vehicle but do not name the unit.
As an alternative, Polish vehicles could be modelled if you use some hand painting or else track down the Intech decal sheet booklet series 4. These were produced in Krakow in 1996 and may still be around although I have lost touch with the UK supplier. The decals come with a small booklet which has photos and colour profiles of several vehicles, this set has full markings for a Valentine of 1st Polish Armoured Division from 1942 as well as Shermans, Matilda and a Jeep plus Pz III and Steyr RSO in unusual markings.

Further Details

Other colour schemes (including a plate showing Lt Wiard's tank) can be found in the old Osprey Vanguard series no 23 'British Tanks in N. Africa 1940-42' by Bryan Perrett, 'Desert Tracks - British Armour Camouflage and Markings in North Africa' by William E Platz, the classic 'Armour Camouflage & Markings, North Africa 1940-1943' by George Bradford, and more desert - with a photo of RESPOND - and schemes for tanks in training in the United Kingdom in 'British Tank Marking and Names' by B T White, all sadly out of print.

An alternative is on the Polish Intech decals sheet no 4 and the original out-of-print Osprey Vanguard series no 30 'Polish Armour 1939-45'. These are for vehicles of the 1st Polish Armoured Division in England in 1942 and include the census (vehicle serial number) of the special batch allocated to the Polish Forces. These are from a series from the non-armoured or B vehicle blocks for some reason, and appeared on a variety of vehicles.

One of the few currently available books on Valentine is from Darlington Productions of Aberdeen, MD in the USA. Their Museum Ordnance Special no 10 by Paul Roberts which has some fine detail photos of the tank preserved at Camp Borden in Canada and a later Mk III in the Virginia Museum of Military Vehicles. The Borden example has some unusual and early features which differ from the kit plus items which differ in Canadian manufacture such as headlamps, as well as interior photos and drawings. Well worth having for reference.

Another useful source are the Military Vehicle Workshop series from Allied Command Productions of Ottawa, Canada. These use original vehicle manuals and official publications to show vehicles in great detail. Two titles cover Valentine, MV-2 does the vehicle from the outside including the suspension and details of the Canadian pattern hull nose as well as both UK and Canadian stowage bin layouts. MV-05 takes a look inside, with seating and ammunition stowage, radio installation and the engine compartment.

Other sources of information are the two works on British Armour in the Second World War, 'The Great Tank Scandal' and 'The Universal Tank' by David Fletcher, published by HMSO for the Tank Museum, Bovington, England. The former even has makers plans for an early Valentine and a three-man turret version, the latter ones for a 6pdr armed Mk IX, and both have much to commend them for anyone interested in period British armour.
The old Bellona Prints series no 34 covered the Valentine two-man turret versions, and no 38 dealt with the later versions with text and plans to 1/76 and 1/48 by D P Dyer. Sadly they are long put of print as they give very detailed coverage of the tank. Mr Dyer gave his opinions on building the kit complete with 1/35 scale plans in the Military Modelling "AFV Modelling Special Issue" (Vol 28 No 12, August 1998) which you may like to seek out. He used Fruilmodel tracks on his model.

For details of the tank in action, seek out 'The Valentine in North Africa' by Bryan Perrett (Arms & Armour Press, London, England) - another out of print title - or try '50th Royal Tank Regiment - The Complete History' by Stephen D Hamilton (The Lutterworth Press, Cambridge, England) for use in North Africa or 'With Churchills to War - 48th Battalion Royal Tank Regiment at War 1939-45' by Peter Gudgin (Sutton Publishing, Stroud, England) which deals with their Valentine tanks in the UK as well as the unit overseas with Churchills. These last two should be available from specialist mail order booksellers.

Overall Rating

Despite a few shortcomings, where other manufacturers may not have done any better, this is a good kit. It could almost but not quite convert me to liking individual link tracks, as link and length looks as good to me and saves time. Having waited for a plastic kit of the tank I am not disappointed, and the best I can say is to slightly paraphrase the words of the Soviet government in Worlds War 2.

Of all the equipment supplied by the Allied nations to the USSR, one of the few, and possibly the only, item they commented on was the Valentine. They liked it, and to show how much they liked it, they asked for more! Fifty and more eventful years later I would send the same comments back. Rumours of other marks and variants continue to be passed around, with the Bishop the only one seen so far.


The Bishop Artillery is an unusable vehicle featured in Battlefield V. Its single in-game appearance is as a vehicle wreck on the map Arras.

A drivable version of the Bishop was planned, with a UI icon, model and some Vehicle Customization items evident in the game files, but with weapons and projectile data missing. Ώ] It was cut alongside several other self-propelled artillery vehicles, namely the Churchill AVRE, Hummel and Grille. As of patch 6.2 the vehicle has been removed from the game files. ΐ] The vehicle had a rotating turret and could seat only one player as driver.


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